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2015-11-1 09:54|鿴:22475|:0|:С

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ӢάʱӢģVictorian eraǰʱ»ʱάʱӢҵʹӢ۹ķˣ밮»ʱһͬΪǴӢ۹Ļƽʱʱ޳Ϊ1837-1901꣬άŮAlexandrina Victoriaͳʱڡ˳ʱڵĺƽٵԸϸӢԷչ˴Ӣ۹ĹţѧΪ1832ĸ﷨1832Ǹʱηչˡ

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άʱӢ˿ڿٳɳʱڣʱ˿18311390˿ٳɳ19013250ˣߴΪ¸ʱ˿ڿٳɳҪأӢǵһ˿תũҵҵĹң

άʱڵ쮸ֱ1901żԭ˸ʱڵĸʣѧϣʱڵˮ׼ߣ֮ŮԵıߣѧ۵㣬19ʱڣ飮ֱ19ĩڲż19ĩںǽֿʼʱ鲢Ƶԭδȷڽߵ£ͬһͬ20ͳʵ½ҪзʽĶԪǶΪ̬ȵĸı䣮

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Ӣ19ûκشӢոdzΨһûеһ꣮˿ʴ1858-1854ǧ֮21.9 1901ǧ֮171971ǧ֮5.4ȻǺܸߣײҲӰʵشأ߽ײͥСزʱȵͽײԵͺܶ

뽡׼ʱҲгƣӪȡĸҲǿӰԭˮƷΪˮ̽жȸƣõ£׷Ҳ״ȶʹжʽͶҽѧоѲ״ĸӤʣ༲ԱˣڴʱȻλҴ󱬷ֱ1848-491853굼1413710138˷󱻹ɴͳת׶ˮϵͳĹ״̬

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άʱŮԴűأ϶ӵһʱڶŮԵͷáһʽ˵رֳ˵ʵ

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άʱΪӢҵĶʱڣҲӢĻȫʢʱڣʱӢľռȫ70%

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άʱ˶ɰŵ壬¹ŵ壬壬ӡԼӡɵȡֳȺǶĿʢ

άʱӿֳΰҡʫ˺ǵĴ֮ӢŮ١أ򡤰ԼʵС˵Ҳ˹Ҹ˹¶ȡάʱԳеǫòƣҲһѧĻ͹ҵõܴչķٲʢ̫ƽʢӡˢķչٽѧĿǰ٣һʱڻγŮƽȺƽȵĽķū˶һ˼֡Ǹʱϲ׼ʳdzǴңԶĹȽڸϡϣھƵʳƷСάʱʷѧУд鼮Ӣʱ罫ϸдСһЩСҲ翪ȣάʱγǡʱڣӢʢ裬ͷḻ緹򵥣˵άŮŮ̴ӹ١ŮÿͻúܶDZЩСԣ˷׷Ч£轥ΪһʽʵϣΧϰγ˶ʵIJĻŵùݿʼңڿŵIJݣ軰ΪһʽάʱŮСǻ档ʱûάŮȥܶʷѧΪνάʱڵһսԺ1936꣬һʱڽɵˮάʱĽ

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άʱڣӢﵽǿʢۣ֮ʱĹҵȳ֮ȫܺͻҪĶó׶κһҡӢĸѾʹΪ֮Ŀ1851һ˲μˮٰIJ˵Ӣһȴɹ񣻶һĹңȴֻΪԣάڵӢΪǵ޿ƥеĵλ⣬ʱóģʷءͶƽԭǵ׵أ֥ӸͰǵ֣ôͲ޵ĺǵֳĴǡǵأ͢ͱԭǵţȺ³İϷǺͰĴǵĻƽ׶أӡ˺йΪֲҶǵĿȡֲ԰鼰ӡȺͷǵ԰кǵĹ԰ϲǵ޻أеůչ

һͣʻŽ֮ʢȻ70ʼӢҵȫĵλȴʼɥʧˣӭͷϣ͵¹ΪͻԹֵΪ1880ꡫ189010䣬Ӣ30%¹29%41%1890~190010Ӣ34%¹Ҳ34%38%1900ꡫ1913꣬Ӣƽֻ24%¹ȴ30%39%1880꣬ȫƷܶ40%Ӣģ1913Ӣ¹Ʒܶеı29.9%26.4%12.6%Ӣ»ʮԵġȻֻ»ӾϿӢеĹңάʱ֮һĸֱһֱģӢһֱȫеĹ֮һȻָһάʱƸķʼղƶԱʮԡһ棬й幬ʽׯ԰һ棬ũưܵéݲᡣһ棬ǹʵܣһ棬ʧҵ˾ǵˮƽ̫һҴĺ蹵һʱӢıص˹Ӣ˵һ塱ĹңéݲʱDzᰲȫġ֮ӦģӢΪƶȣƶȡĹƶȡ˾ƶȡѡƶȵȣʱ롣Ӧ˵ٸӢЩƶǵʱȽģʱǨ˹ҵʱڣõķٷչṹļ仯ƶȱԽԽʱˣΪǿʢ֮еһгӰǽѡΪ1715ѡ˿ռ˿47%1813ֻ꣬ռ25%ˡ1793һɻԸɵ塰֮ѻᡱһݱ棬˵Ӣܹ400ϯУռһϵ256ϯ11075ѡѡġѡٶڹΪʹͷûѡѡ١18ͣѡʢУÿһԱǿǮġԱǮᣬֱȻָٻǮǡǸ֮ʢ磬ǡܵľƶȡ

֮ڽ빤ҵ֮ӢɾˣλԺУǽһйӢƶԽû뵽ƶԴṹԱײԥڶƶȽмʱıɴ˳ƶȷչͺᾭ÷չ״ֵ⣬ǿλʮֲģպӭͷϵһDZʵϣֱ19°ҶӢԽǿʢ۷ʱ˲ſʼԹƶȽз˼ʼ˶ƶȽдĸĸʱȻЩĸﻺìܣѾõĻףʱҪȫϴλþͺѵģʱӢȫλ£ֱ죬ӢľáΡµȷмǿӰƿۡһһӦʱȱ벻㣬ϸʱҪӦĵдڵӰȫ֣ӢĽѵֵ˼

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ʱʱڷĽһʱڣĽԼʽʱĹŵ磺ϣ񡢸ʽԼոʱķ

άʱӢΡáԷٱ仯ĽǸԣв׼ľƸӵмݵв׼ıסװʽʶǼסլȷͱǵijɾ͡ǣװΪġάǷӦ˶ҵʹΪܣôʽΪһַ㡢ۡձı׼ΪϲʽװԪؽϵάʽĻᣬʹ֮ջʽʵϣѶάʽ׼ȷķ࣬ʵ˸װԪأʽĻϺûʽĴװεãǵʱҾߺƷƵĵ

ڽϣֱӵı־ʷϸֽʽĸάʱγһַСظʽӢȱƳ磬˵ĸ̡ʲ׼ͬȵǶԷ׼ȷûȤ˾ʹüַԪأոʽʽʽɯʽֻǣάʱڶЩﲢֻǼ򵥵ĸƣǼ˸ִԪأµĽϣĽԭеĽ췽ij˵ǶԭзƣǶԶַںϡʣԵʱӢϵĵλԼӰ죬ԼʱӢֳذĴǡϷǡӡȵȵҲʼάǷ񡣲һǣǶ˵طԵĿòϺգزͬʱסլʽ磬ʱγ˰ֲͬķһʼĸظʽ񣬽ճʽ19ͺڵŮɭʽݶֳ˷ȣͬʱͶҲУЩʱ໥صûرԵĿʼͽסլǻϷ񣬸˻dzḻ

άʱ²Ϻ¼ķչʹƷĿһ£ϰ塢ͭܶ򵥶ʵõҲװƣʹװα÷ḻ󲿷ֵάʽװԵģҾ߲ߵʽ͹װκ͸ӵεĿܣûװϸڵļҾ߼ҪʣҪԵûľƥ䣬ںͻЩĵ֧ı棬оƶı֯ͼⲿDzϵı׼ЩҾ߶дij߶Ⱥ͹ֵװΣչʾݵάʱڣװԵĶϲסլеĶΪʯṩ˴Ļᣬʯõ塢Բδ󸡵¹ŵʱһֱڸֲͬ˷б㷺ʹáϸĴ״ͻԼʡͬܿڵͼһֱֳǵıdz㷺Уһѹʴ߽ŵǽֽƽĶʸСǽֽҲرеǽڴʽľǽϻصķǽϣͼҲǼεģܵģ羰ǽֽԵһϣ߽ͷԴʵĹͼһЩصסլУһʹƽľذ壬õ̺ǣȻ÷֬ɫĥ⣬С鲻ͬɫӲľɼͼҲDzѡ񡣴ͨװεͲʵĴשɼͼδשṩһ;ϴı棬ڹԡжУḻɫʺͼеĵɫʷ׳ʡ

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άѧΪһʱIJȻкԵص㡣ǶҸӵĴӸǶȣʵķӳеĸ־޴仯ʱҲһصѧˡ

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ʱڣС˵㷺УٷչС˵ʵĵҸ˹סʵٽá˹ˣ1810-1865գ1815-1882ˡЩʵС˵һ³18͵ʵ壬һּ縺ᣬΡǵĴǶͬͬصǹĹյˣΪ˵¡ݽʢмƶ벻з߿ƷжʵдպͶƶȵл˹ڶᷢչʶ19ĩһλ¸ҵŮС˵Ρһ¶󣬻άǴͳ¹۷𹥻ѧҹ

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άʱΰɢļң˹1795-1881˹B 󿼺j1800-1859ޡŵã1822-lg88ԼŦ1801һ1890Լ˹ͼء׶1806һ1873Լ˹1819һ1900Լ˹˹ף1825-1895ȡʵС˵һ¶棬ʶ̬оصӰ졣Ǵ˴Ҫʷ¼ڽġɢļݽ壬ͬʱǽӢɢѧ۷չһ¸ߵ㡣ʱɢƷпġ1837롶塷1840ġӢʷ1849-1861˹ִҡ1843һ1860˹׵IJݽ塣

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άʱڵʫз¡ص㣬ָĸʫ޲ءһʫС˵С˵ж췽ʽõʫСʹʫС˵ص㣬ӵԹµ̽ת䣬ʹάʱڵʫءʫˣ綡ޡŵá»Ƚ£1809-1883G ᣨ1828-1882ÿ˹ȣ1830-1894¡M ս˹1844-1889Ͱũ˹˹²˼1837-1909ʫĸ﷽гԣΪʮ͵ִʫ迪˵·

άʱѧʵطӳʱʵ뾫ֳĸ߶ȵĻ̤ʵصľĬްķḻ붼ǿǰġѧһʱڵƷΪ͵ĵ׼

1851ҵ

1840꣺ΪӢֳءԼǩ

1842꣺1842󳡷ͨ׶ʼ桢۳ΪӢֳءϾԼǩ

1845꣺󼢻Ŀʼ

1846꣺﷨ϳ

1848꣺Ҵ

1850꣺ȼƶӢؽ

1851꣺ҵ

1854꣺ս

1857꣺ӡ

1858꣺Ӣӡȹ˾ϳӡȳΪӢֱϽֳ

1867꣺1867ӢͨӢΪô

1870꣺1870Ƚͨ

1878꣺1878Լ·˹ΪӢֱϽֳ

1882꣺Ӣռʿ˺ӡΪӢ

1884꣺ѱ

1888꣺ֽܿ׶ıɱŮ

1901꣺άŮݱ»λ



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